Chronological guide


A list of the main archaeological periods covered by each of biab's classification numbers (2-9) with an indication of the approximate span of each period in calendar years. These dates should not be taken as definitive or absolute and may well be debated; however, users may appreciate a more explicit guide to the chronological framework against which bibliographic references are classified.


  1. GENERAL, MULTI-PERIOD or UNDATED [classification code 1]
  2. PALAEOLITHIC & MESOLITHIC [classification code 2]
    • Palaeolithic (Pal) 500,000BC-10,000BC
      • Lower Palaeolithic 500,000BC-70,000BC
      • Middle Palaeolithic 70,000BC-35,000BC
      • Upper Palaeolithic 35,000BC-10,000BC
      • Early Upper Palaeolithic 35,000BC-20,000BC
      • [Last Glacial 23,000BC-15,000BC]
      • Late Upper Palaeolithic 15,000BC-10,000BC
    • Mesolithic (Meso) 10,000BC-4000BC
      • Earlier Mesolithic 10,000BC-8000BC
      • Later Mesolithic 8000BC-4000BC
  3. NEOLITHIC [classification code 3]
    • Neolithic (Neo) 4000BC-2300BC
      • Early Neolithic 4000BC-3400BC
      • Later Neolithic 3400BC-2300BC
  4. BRONZE AGE [classification code 4]
    • Bronze Age (BA) 2300BC-700BC
      • Early Bronze Age (EBA) 2300BC-1200BC
      • Middle Bronze Age (MBA) [2000BC-1500BC (Mid E dates)]
      • Late Bronze Age (LBA) 1200BC-700BC
  5. IRON AGE [classification code 5]
    • Iron Age (IA) [Lowland Britain] 700BC-AD43
      • Early Iron Age (EIA) 700BC-400BC
      • Middle Iron Age (MIA) 400BC-100BC
      • Late Iron Age (LIA) 100BC-AD43
    • Iron Age (IA) [Ireland & N Scotland] 700BC-AD450
      • Early Iron Age (EIA) 700BC-400BC
      • Middle Iron Age (MIA) 400BC-100BC
      • Late Iron Age (LIA) 100BC-AD450
  6. ROMAN BRITAIN [classification code 6]
    • Romano-British (RB) [Lowland Britain] AD43-AD450
  7. MIGRATION & EARLY MEDIEVAL [classification code 7]
    • Migration & Early Medieval (MEM) AD450-1066
    • MEM [Ireland] AD450-1170
    • Anglo-Saxon (AS) AD450-1066
  8. MEDIEVAL [classification code 8]
    • medieval (med) 1066-1547
    • medieval (med) [Ireland] 1170-1547
  9. POST-MEDIEVAL, INDUSTRIAL, RECENT [classification code 9]
    • post-medieval (post-med) 1547-
    • Industrial (Ind) 1700-
    • modern (mod) 1901-

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